The centenarian rode 24.25 km in 60 minutes watched by crowds of cheering supporters at the International Cycling Union (UCI) velodrome in Aigle, Switzerland.
Marchand kept a steady pace and was hardly out of breath when he finished, telling his fans: "I could have gone faster, I didn't want to.
"I could have done a kilometre more."
The feat does not threaten the 49.7 km (30.8 miles) achieved by Czech cyclist Ondrej Sosenka in 2005 at the age of 29, but it will be recognised by the UCI in a new over-100s category.
Thanks to Bob